Cataract Surgery

The disease known as cataract is characterized by damaging changes in the eye’s lens, which cause it to lose its transparency and stop functioning as a lens. The retina’s sensitive cells stop receiving enough light to send a trustworthy image to the brain as a result of the disruption of light transmission. Bright light and glare blur the image and make the patient feel uncomfortable. The patient also experiences a loss of visual acuity and clarity.

Surgery is the only effective method for treating cataracts. The modified crystalline lens is removed, and an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is then installed in its place, functioning as a full substitute for the missing structure.

Cataract symptoms

A cataract develops over a considerable amount of time in stages. The disease has different stages, each of which is distinguished by its symptoms as well as alterations of varied intensity and quality.

Initial stage

Symptoms could be nonexistent or seem as doubled or slightly blurry things in your field of vision. Little centers of damage may be discovered during an ophthalmology examination (more often on the periphery of the crystalline lens).

Immature cataract

Visual acuity significantly declines when foci of damage engulf a greater area, and patients may discover

  • Progression of myopia 
  • Blurring in front of the eyes 
  • Iridescent circles around bright objects 
  • Indistinguishability of colors or shades, the image fades.” 

increased or, on the other hand, diminished light sensitivity: it is difficult to differentiate things in the light; on sunny days, lacrimation and threading occur.

Mature cataract

The patient’s pupil becomes clouded and turns whitish as the pathological changes in the crystalline lens advance and become visible. Subjectively, it is difficult to differentiate between the edges and curves of objects; colors fade; light perception is subpar or may even be missing; and it is challenging to maintain one’s orientation in space. needs frequent particular attention.

Preparation for surgery

An appointment with an ophthalmic surgeon is scheduled following a thorough eye examination and the confirmation of a diagnosis of cataract. During this appointment, the choice and calculation of the IOL are made after determining the anamnesis, assessing the objective state of the eye, and taking into account the patient’s visual habits and preferences.

It is vital to have a general examination prior to having cataract surgery, which may include:

  • general clinical and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, blood tests for particularly risky infections (hepatitis C, B, HIV, syphilis), COVID-19 testing, an ECG, a CT scan, and consultation with a general practitioner are all examples of diagnostic procedures. Depending on the situation, a professional might recommend additional tests.

The patient’s home or the ophthalmology clinic where the procedure will be performed may be used for this evaluation. The test findings, however, are only valid for a short time, so keep that in mind.

You shouldn’t eat or drink anything the day of the procedure. When the procedure approaches, you should:

  • Be sure to be free of infectious diseases and in remission of chronic disease. 
  • Bring the pressure back to normal as you calm down (hypertensive people are advised to take the usual hypotensive agents and use light sedatives).

Hospitalization and lens prosthesis

Cataract surgery is carried out as an outpatient procedure while being given local anesthesia. It lasts for roughly 15 to 20 minutes, following which the patient is moved to a general ward and stays under the care of medical professionals at the clinic for several hours. The patient is then free to leave after having their surgically repaired eye bandaged. Since the procedure is less invasive, hospitalization is not required.

It’s crucial to follow the doctor’s regimen and take the prescription within a month. Visual activity is not prohibited at the same time. You can resume your normal activities as soon as your vision improves in the early post-operative days.

How is cataract surgery performed?

Cataract Surgery
  1. Anesthetics and eye-dilating antimicrobial drops are used during the preparation, which starts an hour before the procedure. 
  2. The patient is lying comfortably in a bed in the operating room while observing the brilliant light of the microscope. He or she is completely aware and converses with the surgeon. 
  3. A tiny hole is made in the cornea by the ophthalmic surgeon to access the crystalline lens capsule. The clouded crystalline lens is then minced and aspirated using a phacoemulsifier, a specialized ultrasound tool. 
  4. In the empty space, an elastic artificial crystalline lens is inserted, and it independently assumes its physiological position. In the empty space, an elastic artificial crystalline lens is inserted, and it independently assumes its physiological position.
  5. At the end of the operation, a special sterile sticker is placed over the eye.

The patient feels no pain during the surgery. He feels a soft touch on his head, and the water is streaming.

The only thing the patient sees is the bright light of the microscope.

Rehabilitation period

The 30-day rehabilitation phase following cataract surgery includes taking medicine and adhering to a certain regimen recommended by the doctor:

  • It is necessary to guard against infectious diseases and avoid hypothermia and crowded places. 
  • It is necessary to protect the operating eye from mechanical influences. 
  • Do not scratch, rub, or exert pressure on the eye. 
  • Do not use a sauna, a swimming pool, a steam bath, or go for a swim in open water. 
  • Wash your head carefully and avoid getting water into the open eye socket. 
  • Although the patient will feel an improvement in vision in the early postoperative hours, the ultimate stabilization of visual functions won’t happen until the end of the first month, so it is not advised to start using glasses or contact lenses before this time.

The eye doesn’t entirely recover and acclimate until one to three months after the lens swap. After one week, a second eye operation may be performed, if necessary.


Is the eye operated on under anesthesia?

They do, of course. The majority of IOL implantations and cataract procedures are carried out utilizing local anaesthetic, or specific anesthetic drops. This enables successful surgery on people who cannot be injected due to medical issues.

How long does cataract surgery last?

Cataract surgery is an outpatient operation that does not need for hospital admission. Although the procedure itself just takes a half-hour, the patient will need to stay in the clinic for about two to three hours.

Do children have to have congenital cataracts removed?

Dynamic monitoring is advised in situations when the crystalline lens clouding does not impair central vision or the cataract is small and surgery to eliminate the congenital cataract is not practical. Moreover, an IOL is not always placed during pediatric surgery. The child must wear special glasses in these circumstances. In order to restore the patient’s vision if an intraocular lens was implanted rather than a darkened crystalline lens, more surgeries might be necessary.

What are the complications of cataract surgery?

Because that cataract surgery is a surgical treatment, the patient may experience a variety of problems. Only a small percentage of patients experience complications in the weeks and months following surgery, with success rates exceeding 95 percent. The physician suggests using eye drops to reduce potential risks.

How will I feel after the surgery?

At first, it’s crucial to stick to the doctor’s advice and refrain from doing things like swimming, lifting weights, and utilizing the recommended drops. The patient might require assistance on the first day because of their blurry eyesight. Some pain, such as a thread in the eye under bright light, is possible, but this is typical, and the feelings will soon stop and go away.

How quickly can I return to my normal routine?

After an eye check following surgery, it is possible to go home right away. As long as certain restrictions are observed, the majority of patients are able to resume their regular activities after a few days.

Is relapse possible?

In the operated eye, cataract recurrence is not feasible since the native lens is removed during the procedure and replaced with an IOL. During the course of a person’s lifetime, the intraocular lens properly replaces the lens.

Repeated surgery may be necessary only in two cases:

  • if the second eye has acquired a cataract; 
  • if the procedure was performed on a youngster (to correct age-related changes).

The posterior capsule of the crystalline lens clouding, one of the potential consequences following surgery, is sometimes mistaken for a return of cataract. Although having general symptoms, it is not a true cataract and may be treated with laser surgery to have it removed.

How often should my eyesight be checked after the surgery?

An ophthalmologist should only do the first examination once. Before the patient leaves the hospital, an ophthalmologist should do their initial examination. A week later, they should conduct their second examination.

If there are no issues, the third exam is done after four weeks, and the fourth one is done after three to six months. In light of this, it is advised to see an ophthalmologist annually.

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