Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce adequate thyroid hormone. It can cause a variety of symptoms, such as poor capability to endure cold, a sensation of exhaustion, constipation, anxiety, and weight gain. Sometimes there might be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goitre. Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can result in delays in development and intellectual development in the baby, which is called cretinism.
How Is Hypothyroidism Detected?
A diagnosis of hypothyroidism without any swellings or masses felt within the thyroid gland does not require thyroid imaging; nevertheless, if the thyroid feels unusual, diagnostic imaging is then suggested. The existence of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) makes it most likely that thyroid blemishes are caused by autoimmune thyroiditis, however if there is any doubt, a needle biopsy may be required.
If the TSH level is normal or low and serum totally free T4 levels are low, this is suggestive of main hypothyroidism (insufficient TSH or TRH secretion by the pituitary gland or hypothalamus). There may be other functions of hypopituitarism, such as menstrual cycle abnormalities and adrenal insufficiency. There may likewise be evidence of a pituitary mass such as headaches and vision changes. Central hypothyroidism should be investigated further to identify the underlying cause.
Can Thyroid Problems Affect Your Eyes?
Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) isn’t typically connected with eye disease. In severe cases, however, hypothyroidism might cause swelling around the eyes and a loss of the hairs in the outer part of the eyebrows.
In a couple of cases, an eye problem called Graves’ ophthalmopathy might establish if hypothyroidism establishes after treatment for Graves’ disease — the most common type of overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism). Tomb’ ophthalmopathy can cause eye discomfort, extending eyeballs and vision changes.