Last updated on December 22nd, 2018 at 10:51 am
Eyelid contact dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction including the eyelid skin that is triggered by contact with a trigger substance. It might be due to allergic reaction (allergic contact dermatitis) or inflammation (irritant contact dermatitis). Eyelid dermatitis is also called eyelid eczema.
Upper, lower or both eyelids on one or both sides can be impacted by contact dermatitis. The patient might report itching, stinging or burning, and the covers are red and flaky. They might swell. With persistence of the dermatitis, the eyelids become thickened with increased skin markings (lichenification). The eyelid margins might end up being involved (blepharitis). The look is similar, whatever the cause.
The thin skin of the eyelids is especially conscious irritants and allergens and is hence susceptible to establish contact dermatitis. Contact with the very same trigger might not cause a rash on other areas of skin.
Red Itchy Eyelid Contact Dermatitis
How Does Irritant Eyelid Contact Dermatitis Occur?
Irritant contact dermatitis is an innate inflammatory response due to injury to the skin. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, it does not involve particular antibodies (immunoglobulins) or specific immune cells (memory T cells).
What Triggers Red Itchy Eyelid Contact Dermatitis?
Itchy contact dermatitis may be activated by contact with irritating compounds and/or physical triggers.
Irritating compounds that might cause irritant contact dermatitis of the eyelids include:
- Soaps and cleaning agents
- Acids and alkalis
- Chemicals such as chlorine under safety glasses worn when swimming
- Dust particles
- Hydrophobic compounds (comprised of particles that drive away water, i.e. drying representatives).
- Cosmetics such as eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara and sun block.
These substances may touch the eyelids directly or be transferred from the fingers (which may be unaffected by dermatitis).
Physical triggers that might cause irritant contact dermatitis consist of:
- Temperature extremes (heat or cold).
- Humidity extremes (dry or moist).
- Mechanical (rubbing or scratching).
Who Gets Irritant Eyelid Contact Dermatitis?
Red Itchy eyelid contact dermatitis can occur in anyone. However, it is more common in people with delicate skin. People with a background of atopic eczema, asthma and hayfever (” atopy”) are most likely to experience irritant contact dermatitis than people without this history.
Any pre-existing swelling of the skin can cause the skin’s waterproof “barrier” to be jeopardized and may make it more susceptible to irritant contact dermatitis. Barrier function may likewise be defective for genetic reasons.
How Is the Diagnosis of Red Itchy Eyelid Contact Dermatitis Made?
Medical diagnosis of eyelid irritant contact dermatitis is made by identifying its particular features.
- An itchy rash that impacts one or both eyelids, which may take place periodically or continuously.
- Suspicion that it has actually been caused or exacerbated by contact with an irritant (see list above).
- Typically, pre-existing sensitive skin or atopic eczema.
- Patch checks to suspected contact irritants are negative.
It may be tough to recognize the precise cause.
Allergic Eyelid Contact Dermatitis
How Does Allergic Eyelid Contact Dermatitis Occur?
Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by an immune reaction to the trigger; this is known as the allergen. This is frequently a substance that the patient has actually been exposed to often times previously without issue. The rash usually happens one to a number of days after the contact with the allergen. This can make it difficult to identify the reason for the dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis involves a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (likewise called type IV hypersensitivity) and includes immune memory cells.
What Triggers Allergic Eyelid Contact Dermatitis?
Eyelid contact dermatitis follows direct contact with an allergen.
Allergic reaction to cosmetics might be because of exposure to allergens in:
- Emollients and moisturisers.
- Eye creams.
- Sun blocks.
- Fragrances and essential oils.
- Jewellery containing nickel and gold.
Other potential allergens are discovered in:
- Eyelash curlers or tweezers (nickel).
- False eyelashes (parts or more often, adhesives).
- Eye drops (preservatives and antiseptics).
- Contact lens solution.
- Rubber goggles.
- Spectacle frames.
Eyelid contact dermatitis may also happen following indirect contact with an irritant, due to move of percentages of compound from the hands (through rubbing or touching the eyelids). Such irritants may consist of:.
- Nickel from metal coins or clothes fastenings.
- Nail cosmetics (varnishes and incorrect nails).
- Hair color, ie paraphenylenediamine allergic reaction.
Eyelid contact dermatitis is sometimes set off by airborne irritants, such as dust mite and plant pollens. Compositae allergy is an example of an air-borne irritant triggering eyelid dermatitis.
Who Gets Allergic Red Itchy Eyelid Contact Dermatitis?
Allergic itchy eyelid contact dermatitis can occur in anybody. It disappears likely in those with known sensitive skin or atopic eczema than it is in people that have formerly had no skin issue.
Contact allergic reaction normally establishes after duplicated previous contact with the allergen, so it is not necessarily a brand-new substance that has set off the allergic reaction.
How Is the Diagnosis of Allergic Eyelid Contact Dermatitis Made?
Medical diagnosis of eyelid allergic contact dermatitis is made by recognizing its characteristic functions.
- An itchy rash that impacts one or both eyelids.
- This is more than likely to occur periodically at periods of days to years.
- Suspicion that it has been triggered or aggravated by contact with an allergen (see list above).
- Spot tests to one or more suspected contact irritants are positive.
Understanding the details of all compounds that the skin may have been exposed to in skin care, hobbies and work are a fundamental part of the investigator work required to find the cause of a eyelid dermatitis. Spot tests should be set up to develop or verify the activating irritant.
What Is the Treatment for Red Itchy Eyelid Contact Dermatitis?
It is essential to avoid contact with irritants and known or possible allergens, to ensure that the skin is healthy and able to form a waterproof barrier.
- Avoid rubbing and scratching.
- Only touch eyelids with clean, rinsed hands.
- Wash eyelids with plain water or use a cream cleanser developed for delicate skin.
- Avoid all contact with irritants found by patch tests– this is required life-long.
- Prevent eyelid cosmetics.
- Use protective wrap-round eyeglasses if exposed to cold, wind, dust particles and so on. Eyeglasses can
- likewise make it much easier to stop scratching and rubbing the eyelids.
Brief courses of moderate topical corticosteroids (ie hydrocortisone 1% cream or lotion) or calcineurin inhibitors (ie pimecrolimus 1% cream) might be required to treat active inflammation. Severe contact dermatitis of the eyelids is typically treated with a brief course of oral corticosteroids.
Eyelid dermatitis can be followed by postinflammatory coloring, one of the causes of dark circles under the eyes.